Wednesday, February 12, 2020
JULIAN OF NORWICH & MICHAEL HARNER - Assignment Example So while Julian talks about Christ being Ã¢â¬Å"the foundation, he is the substance, he is the teacher, he is the endÃ¢â¬ , Harner talks about the matter of fact aspects of the tsentsak and non-drug forms of shamanism in ordinary, factual language (Harner 57-68; Julian of Norwich 43). Both sources narrate forms of spiritual quests, and a common element in both is a sense that both are honest and sincere in their quests and in the way they tried to make sense of their experiences and visions. This is important because both are narrating extremely subjective experiences whose validity cannot be experienced or confirmed by an external party, but only felt as genuine and believable from an intuitive point of view. The integrity of the narrators can make or break the narratives. One gets a sense of the integrity of HarnerÃ¢â¬â¢s narratives especially with regard to the subjective experience of ayahuasca, confirmed by a blind shaman for instance. For Julian, her reputation and the internal consistency of her message attest to the sincerity and the genuineness of her narratives and religious insights (Harner; Julian of Norwich). Julian contextualizes her sufferings in the context of ChristÃ¢â¬â¢s own suffering and death, couched in language tied to compassion and love. She learns from a desire to suffer the bodily pains and sufferings of Christ also of the internal reality of the compassion that exists in men as a spark too of the divine in men, of the Christ in men. Her key insights are with regard to the love of God shown through the ChristÃ¢â¬â¢s own passion, so that she and all who love God and desire to follow the will of God may experience that love as well (Julian of Norwich). The sacred drink ingested by Harner is ayahuasca. When he ingested this he had visions of another dimension, including that of a creature that is reptile-like, who reveals to him an inner reality tied to the nature of manÃ¢â¬â¢s past, of the way man had evolved
Friday, January 31, 2020
Sport Scale Essay ABSTRACT The primary purpose of this study was to develop a valid and reliable instrument to assess sport fan motivation. Also, the new measure was employed to examine the relationship between sport fan motivation and ethnic identity. One hundred sixty nine college students from two southeastern institutions participated in this study. Data were analyzed using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, Bivariate correlation, t test, ANOVA, and descriptive statistics. The Fan Motivation Scale (FMS), developed in this study, consisted of six components with 22 items. The number of items under every component range from 5 to 2 items (quality of the game 4 items, escape 5 items, boredom avoidance 5 items, social 3 items, entertainment 3 items, and sport atmosphere 2 items). In addition, two hypotheses were tested in the current study. The first hypothesis was that ethnic identity is positively related to sport fan motivation. The second hypothesis assumed that there was a difference between African Americans and European Americans in their ethnic identity. The results revealed the FMS is a reliable measure with an overall alpha score of 0.90. Significant differences were found between participants in the total FMS and some of the subscales based on gender and ethnicity. However, the outcomes of the samples examined in this study do not support the first hypothesis. Therefore, no significant relationship was found between sport fan motivation and ethnic identity. Regarding the second hypothesis, a significant difference was found between African Americans and European Americans in their ethnic identity. vii CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Sports have become an increasingly important part of our society. Sports fans represent a significant percentage of sport consumers, because 70 percent or more of Americans watch, read, or discuss sports at least once a day (Iso-Ahola Hatfield, 1986). From 1985 to 1998, attendance has significantly increased at the four major sports in the United States. Major League Baseball (MLB) had the largest increase in the number of people attending games (24. 2 million, a 50% increase), followed by professional basketball (10. 3 million, a 89% increase), professional football (5.7 million, a 40% increase), and professional hockey (5. 6 million, a 49% increase). The number of people attending college sporting events has also increased during this time period (U. S. Census Bureau, 2000). Additionally, more television programming time is being devoted to sporting events. The ESPN was the fifth highest ranked television network in 2000, in terms of revenue, it was estimated to be $2. 1 billion (McAvoy, 2000). With the increase of interest in sports has become an increased interest of sports fans as consumers. Sport teams and companies are very interested in attracting as many consumers as possible to purchase game tickets or products. Therefore, sport marketers should acknowledge the factors that drive fans to follow sport by attending, watching on television, or purchasing products. However, understanding the notion of sports fans is not simple because their attitudes and behaviors are not determined by a single motive or factor but rather occur for a variety of reasons (Mashiach, 1980). Statement of the Problem There has been a growing interest in the study of sport fan motivations in recent years to better understand fan behaviors (Bilyeu Wann, 2002; Funk, Mahony, Nakazawa, Hirakawa, 2001; Funk, Mahony Ridinger, 2002; Funk, Ridinger, Moorman, 2003; Gantz, 1981; Kahle, Kambara, Rose, 1996; Lee, 2002; Mahony, Nakazawa, Funk, James, Gladden, 2002; Pease Zhang, 2001; Trail James, 2001; Wann, 1995; Wann, Bilyeu, Brennan, Osborn Gambouras, 1999; Wann, Brewer, 1 Royalty, 1999; Wann, Schrader Wilson, 1999). Some of these studies have introduced measures of different consumption motives of sport fans. In addition, researchers have examined the relationship between fan motivation and other variables such as team identification, involvement, gender, and race. The measures used in previous studies to assess fan motivations vary in length and number of components. However, some of the components are used in all or most scales such as the entertainment component, the family component, and the friends component. They also share very similar items with regard to similar components. Items used in most previous scales often begin with the words Ã¢â¬Å"I likeÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"I enjoyÃ¢â¬ , or Ã¢â¬Å"I feelÃ¢â¬ which raises a validity issue for the measures because the aforementioned words represent satisfaction and attitude rather than motivation. Fan satisfaction relates to the happiness and pleasure associated with the outcome of a sporting event while fan attitude represents the opinion and feelings an individual has about a sport team or sporting event. On the other hand, sport fan motivation refers to the reasons that drive individuals to support sport teams, be loyal to them, buy team/sport related products, watch and attend sporting events. The Purpose of the Study The purpose of this study was to develop a valid and reliable instrument to assess sport fan motives. Also, the new measure was utilized to examine the relationship between fan motivation and ethnic identity. The Conceptual Framework The conceptual framework of this study includes the discussion of two concepts. First, the Fan Motivation Scale and its content will be introduced. Second, the notion of ethnic identity and why it should be correlated with sport fan motivation will be presented. The prior research (Wann, 1995; Funk, Mahony, Nakazawa, Hirakawa, 2001; Bilyeu Wann, 2002) identified various motives that could drive fans to attend sporting events. Some of these motives are related to personal needs (entertainment and financial 2 gain), social needs (bonding with family and group affiliation), and psychological needs (self-esteem and achievement). In attempt to measure the motives of sport fans, the researchers introduced different scales. These scales comprised different number of motives ranging from 7 motives with 16 items to 18 motives with 54 items. The length of some of the scales was not the only problem. The major concern for previous scales is in the content validity, the extent to which items used in the scale accurately represent fan motives. In fact, all previous scales included items that are more related to attitude and satisfaction then motivation. The reason for this problem is the lack of clear definition of sport fan motivation. The current study is going to view sport fan motivation as the reasons that drive individuals to support sport teams, be loyal to them, purchase team/sport related products, watch and attend sporting events. In addition, this study will employ a review of related literature and the prior effort made on fan motivation scales to develop valid and reliable measures of sport fan motivation. The proposed Fan Motivation Scale (FMS) will measure six motives: social, entertainment, escape, aesthetic, psychological, and amotivation. The social motive assesses the extent to which individuals participate in sporting events as spectators because they desire to spend time with their families (Gantz, 1981; Wann, 1995). Also, to some individuals, group affiliation is an important motivation of being a sport fan. Sport spectating provides a fan with opportunities to share time with others who enjoy the same activities. A fan may want to keep contact with a group of fans and seek refuge from a feeling of alienation (Branscombe Wann, 1991; Smith, 1988; Wann, 1995). The entertainment motive includes items that represent the desire of some individuals to have a good time and enjoy the excitement associated with sporting events. Some fans might enjoy a sport because of its entertainment value. Sport spectating provides fans with leisure pastime activities similar to watching movies or television. One advantage of sport spectating is that few special skills, if any, are required (Zillmann, Bryant Sapolsky, 1989; Wann, 1995). The escape motive of sport fans assesses the desire of sport fans to escape or diverge from their everyday lives. Attending a sporting event gives many people an 3 opportunity to temporarily forget about their troubling, dissatisfying, or boring lives (Smith, 1988; Lever Wheeler, 1984; Wann, Schrader Wilson, 1999). The aesthetic motive of sport fans appeals to those that are motivated by the aesthetic value of the sport. Some fans enjoy sports because of the competition between highly skilled athletes. The beauty, grace, and other artistic characteristics make some people enjoy sporting events (Milne McDonald, 1999; Wann, 1995). The psychological motive is a factor that motivates sports fans and gives them a feeling of accomplishment and achievement when the fansÃ¢â¬â¢ favorite team or player is successful. Sports fans tend to associate themselves with a successful team or player in order to create and sustain a positive self-concept (Branscombe Wann, 1991; Milne McDonald, 1999; Sloan, 1989). Amotivation refers to the state of lacking an intention to act. When amotivated, individualÃ¢â¬â¢s action lacks intentionality and a sense of personal causation (Ryan Deci, 2000). Amotivation results from not valuing an activity (Ryan, 1995), not feeling competent to do it (Deci, 1975), or not believing it will yield a desired outcome (Seligman, 1975). Some individuals might go to sport events and watch sport games because they have nothing else to do, bored, and want to kill time. These types of reasons had been neglected in previous studies of sport fan motivation. As mentioned earlier, prior research has examined the relationship between fan motivations and other variables such as sport involvement, team identification, and some demographic factors of selected sport fans. However, the ethnic identity of sport fans has been ignored in the literature. It might be assumed by some researchers that the race factor is enough representation of an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s ethnic background. It is, however, only part of the concept. Ethnic identity is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"a process of coming to terms with oneÃ¢â¬â¢s ethnic-racial membership group as a salient reference groupÃ¢â¬ (Smith, 1991, p. 182). Smith (1991) defined an ethnic group as Ã¢â¬Å"a reference group called upon by people who share a common history and cultureÃ¢â¬ (p. 181). According to Gordon (1985), culture influences our social standards, values, cognitions, social perceptions, attributions, feelings, and sources of motivation. Individuals develop their ethnic identity through their social interaction with others. Through their interactions they begin to view themselves as others view them 4 (Stryker, 1980). Ethnic identity is viewed as part of social identity and it was defined by Tajfel (1981) as Ã¢â¬Å"that part of an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s self-concept which derives from his knowledge of his membership of a social group (or groups) together with the value and emotional significance attached to that membershipÃ¢â¬ (p.255). An ethnic group is composed of a number of individuals who share a sense of group identity based on their unique culture, which include values, morals, and various customs, as well as shared origins. In the larger society, ethnic groups tend to maintain a sense of peoplehood (Dublin, 1996; Kornblum Janowitz, 1974; Portes, 1996). Forty years ago, Tumin (1964) defined an ethnic group as Ã¢â¬Å"a social group which, within a large cultural and social system, claims or is accorded special status in terms of complexity of traits which it exhibits or is believed to exhibitÃ¢â¬ (p.123). Distinguishing between ethnic groups is not always simple. Some ethnic minorities, such as African Americans, may have obvious physical differences that set them apart from other ethnic groups within the United States, but many biracial individuals present an ambiguity because they belong to two or more ethnic groups, which makes ethnicity a subjective construct (Root, 1992). Studying ethnic identity is very important because it is the foundation for what an individual believes about himself or herself. Given the significance of ethnic identity, many researchers have been studying this construct. Phinney (1990) reviewed 70 studies of ethnic identity published between 1972 and 1990. She found that most of the studies have used one of three theoretical frameworks to examine ethnic identity. The first framework is the social identity theory which ethnic identity is considered a component of social identity. Social theory refers to the need for an individual to be a member of a group that provides him or her with a sense of belonging that contributes to a positive self-concept. The second framework is the acculturation prospective. The concept of acculturation refers to changes in the cultural attitudes, value, and behaviors that result from interactions between two distinct cultures (Berry, Trimble, Olmedo, 1986). These kinds of changes are normally the concern of a group of individuals, and how it relates to the dominant or host society. Ethnic identity can be an aspect of acculturation in which the focus is on the individuals and how they relate to their own group as a subgroup of the larger society (Phinney, 1990). The third framework is developmental framework, where ethnic identity is viewed as a process by which people construct their ethnicity. 5 Erikson (1968) indicated that identity is the outcome of a period of exploration and experimentation that normally takes place during adolescence and leads to a decision of commitment in various areas, such as occupation, and religion. This view of ethnic identity suggests age as a factor is strongly related to developing oneÃ¢â¬â¢s ethnic identity (Phinney, 1990). Phinney (1990) mentioned that most studies have focused on certain components of ethnic identity. These components include self-identification as a group member, a sense of belonging to the group, attitudes about oneÃ¢â¬â¢s group membership, and ethnic involvement (social participation, cultural practices and attitudes). Self-identification represents the ethnic label that one uses for oneself. The ability of children to label themselves with the right ethnic group was the addressed in a study by Aboud (187). Another issue was the relationship between incorrect labeling and poor self-concept (Cross, 1978). Adults are expected to know their ethnicity but the issue is what label one chooses to use for himself or herself. However, some ethnic groups have a little choice in what ethnic title they can use for themselves often because of their distinctive skin color or culture (language, dresses, customs, etc. ) which distinguishes them from other groups. Additionally, some individuals have two or more ethnic backgrounds and they identify themselves as members of more than one group. Ethnic self-identification is an important but complex component of ethnic identity (Phinney, 1990). The feeling of belonging to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own group is an important element of ethnic identity. Some researchers have tried to assess the sense of belonging by either asking people how strong was their relationship with their groups or how separate they feel from other groups (Driedger, 1976). Members of every ethnic group can have positive or negative attitudes toward their own group. Some of the positive attitudes related were pride in and pleasure, satisfaction, and contentment with oneÃ¢â¬â¢s group (Phinney, 1990). Negative attitudes include dissatisfaction, displeasure, discontentment, and a desire to hide ones identity (Driedger, 1976). People who display no positive attitudes or express negative attitudes can be seen as denying their ethnic identity (Phinney, 1990). In addition, the involvement in the social life and cultural practices of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s ethnic group is considered a strong indicator of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s ethnic identity. The social and cultural practices 6 that represent the involvement component include language, friendship, social organizations, religion, cultural traditions, and politics (Phinney, 1990). Phinney (1992) developed the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM) with the purpose of assessing ethnic identity among various ethnic groups. The scale was designed to measure three components of ethnic identity: affirmation and belonging, ethnic identity achievement, and ethnic behaviors. Roberts, Phinney, Masse, Chen, Roberts, and Romero (1999) examined the validity of the MEIM and conducted factor analysis with a large sample. The outcomes suggest that the scale measures two components of ethnic identity: ethnic identity search and affirmation, belonging, and commitment. Ethnic identity search refers to a developmental and cognitive component. Affirmation, belonging, and commitment represent the affective component. However, the scale has been proven to be a valid and reliable measurement and it will be used in the context of this study. More discussion of the scale is provided in the method section. Researchers have indicated that positive relationships do exist between ethnic identity and self-esteem, self-concept, psychological well-being, achievement, and satisfaction (Phinney, 1992; Roberts et al. , 1999; Delworth, 1989). However, it is the purpose of this study to examine the relationship between ethnic identity and motivations of sport fans. According to Phinney (1990) some studies have used sport as a cultural item to measure ethnic identity. Pons, Laroche, Nyeck, and Perreault (2001) indicated that the choice of a particular sporting event represents a strong cultural meaning for the individual. Some ethnic groups tend to identify with a specific sport, for example, soccer in the Italian community and hockey among the French Canadian. Pons et al. , (2001) stated Ã¢â¬Å"ethnic groups do not all react to sporting events in the same way; they differ in the means and the pace of their integration into the host cultureÃ¢â¬ (p.238). African American consumers tend to attend historically Black college/university sports more frequently than they did any other sport. The level of ethnic identification of African American fans has significant affect on their attendance frequency to historically Black college/university sports (Armstrong, 2002). Moreover, previous studies showed differences in motivation between African American and European American sport fans based on ethnicity (Wann, Bilyeu, Brennan, Osborn, Gambouras, 1999; Bilyeu Wann, 2002; Armstrong, 2002). 7Ã'Å½ Therefore, it is expected that there is a relationship between sport fansÃ¢â¬â¢ motivation and ethnic identity. Research Hypotheses H1: Ethnic identity is positively related to sport fan motivations. H2: There is a difference between African American and European American in their ethnic identity. Operational Definitions Ethnic Identity: Ã¢â¬Å"part of an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s self-concept that derives from his or her knowledge of membership in a social group (or groups) together with the value and emotional significance attached to that membershipÃ¢â¬ (Phinney, 1992, p.156). Sport fan: refers to someone who is enthusiastic about a particular sport team or athlete (Wann, 1995). Sport fan motivation: refers to the reasons that drive individuals to support sport teams, be loyal to them, buy team/sport related products, watch and attend sporting events. Delimitations This study is delimitated to: 1. Investigate the ethnic identity and motivations of sport fans in general. For that reason, no specific group of fans (i. e. , basketball fans, football fans) was examined. 2. The student at Florida State University (FSU) and Florida Agriculture and Mechanical University (FAMU), therefore, the findings cannot be generalized to populations other than the population from which the sample was drawn. 8 Limitations This study is limited to the following: 1. The outcome of this study depends on the participantsÃ¢â¬â¢ honesty and cooperation in answering the questions. 2. Due to the nature of this study as self-administrated surveys, the researcherÃ¢â¬â¢s access is limited to the classes gained via permission to attend and meet. Assumptions This study is based on the following assumptions: 1. The surveys used in this study are clear and understandable for the participants. 2. The participants will answer the questions honestly and accurately. 3. The surveys are valid and reliable. Significance of the Study The sport marketers are in a high competition within the sport industry and also with outside competitors. Young generations are attracted through technology to new types of entertainment such as computer/video games and the X-Games. Ã¢â¬Å"These new entertainment options have already attracted a significant amount of attention from the so -called X-generationÃ¢â¬ (Kwon Trail, 2003, p. 1). Therefore, sport marketers should be concern about the future of the sport industry. In order for sport marketers to maintain their consumer base and to attract young generation, they should explore and examine the consuming behavior of sport fans and the factors that might influence their behavior. According to Gramann and Allison (1999), Ã¢â¬Å"the increase in the ethnic diversity of North America is one of the most powerful demographic forces shaping U. S. and Canadian societyÃ¢â¬ (p. 283). Therefore, studying ethnic identity as an important social characteristic of sport fans is important to sport marketers. The importance of studying ethnic groups among sport fans is reflected by the increasing percentage of minority participation in professional sport, especially African American. African American athletes represent 25 to 75 percent of athletes on the rosters for the three popular sports (baseball, basketball, football) (Gano-Overway Duda, 2001). 9 The goal of this study was to introduce a new measure of fan motivation which will assist practitioners in the sport industry to understanding the driving factors for sport fans to attend sporting events, support sport teams, or buy team/sport related products. Also, the relationship between motivations and ethnic identity of sport fans was examined. The outcome of the study should provide practitioners with valuable information to assist them in understanding the various motives of sport fans based on their ethnic identity. Therefore, sport marketers should be able to improve their plans and strategies to maintain their fan base and fulfill the desires for their target market. 10 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW The purpose of this chapter is to review the literature on ethnic identity and motivation of sport fans. It should be noted that to date, no research has combined and analyzed the interaction of the two identified variables. As such, the first section of this chapter focuses on the research that has been done on the ethnic identity of sport fans. The second section discusses motives of sport fans as well as scales that have been used to assess these motives. Ethnic Identity and Sport Fans Ethnicity as social and cultural characteristic of sport fans has been ignored in the literature although the race factor, which is the physical aspect of ethnicity, has been utilized for comparison between ethnic groups. However, Armstrong (2002) examined the influence of ethnic identification on Black consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ attendance at historically Black college/university (HBCU) sports. To assess ethnic identification, Armstrong used a self-report measure in which participants were asked to identify their ethnic group based on ethnic categories (Black/African American, Caucasian, Hispanic, Asian, and Ã¢â¬Å"otherÃ¢â¬ ) and to rate the intensity of their identification with their ethnic group on a scale from 1 (weak) to 5 (very strong). The hypothesis was that the identification of Black consumers with their ethnic group would have a significant influence on their attendance frequency at HBCU sport events. The findings offered support for the hypothesis indicating a positive relationship between ethnic identification and attendance frequency. In another study, Armstrong (2000) examined the influence of ethnic identification on African American studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ processing of persuasive sport communications (i. e. , advertisement, promotional messages, developmental campaigns, and announcements). The ethnic identification of the respondents was measured using a 13-item scale developed by Whittler, Calatone, and Young (1991). The scale assesses two major factors of ethnic identification (cross-race attraction and political and social 11 relations among Blacks). The outcome of the study revealed that ethnic identification has an effect on participantsÃ¢â¬â¢ reaction to racial heuristics in the communication. African American consumers are more likely to have a positive reaction to a persuasive communication if the message were culturally relevant and delivered by a Black spokesperson. Pons et al. (2001) looked at the impact ethnic identity could have on the consumption behavior and orientation of sport consumers. They measured language (3 items), religion (3 items), and social participation with oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own ethnic group (6 items) as three dimensions of ethnic identity. The orientation of sport consumers has three dimensions. The first dimension refers to sporting events as a provider of sensations in which consumers have an emotional attachment to the event or the product. The second dimension represents individualsÃ¢â¬â¢ need to understand the sporting event, which lead to better appreciation for the event. The third dimension of orientation toward sporting event refers to the socialization opportunities presented for sport consumers. The consumption behaviors include purchase of sporting good, tickets, and time devoted to sporting events. The results offered support for the idea that ethnic identity has a positive impact on the consumption and orientation of sport consumers. In regard to the race of sport consumers as part of their ethnicity, researchers have found a difference between Blacks and Whites concerning their sport involvement (Spreitzer Snyder, 1990). Sport involvement included seven dimensions Ã¢â¬Å"watching sports on television, listening to sport on the radio, reading the sport pages of the newspaper, watching/listening to sports news on radio/television, reading sports books, reading sports magazines, and talking about sports with friendsÃ¢â¬ (Spreitzer Snyder, 1990, p. 51). The findings revealed significant effect of race on sport involvement regardless of respondentsÃ¢â¬â¢ social background characteristics (i. e. , age, sex, education, income, town size). Blacks tend to be more involved in sport than Whites. The authors argued that the findings reflect a distinctive subculture within the black community. Rudman (1986) examined the relationship between race, social structure, and sport orientations. The main goal of the study was to see whether factors that affect sport orientations are race-dependant. The results showed Blacks to be more likely than Whites to become vicariously involved in sport outcomes and to incorporate sport into their daily 12 lives. Based on the overall analyses, the author argued that social and economic conditions provide a better explanation of differences in sport orientations. He used the term Ã¢â¬Å"culture of povertyÃ¢â¬ to indicate that socioeconomic positions are more likely to make boor blacks and boor whites see sport as an opportunity to enhance social prestige and economic position. At the college level, Armstrong (2001) examined ethnic minority studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ consumption of college sport events. The ethnic minorities included African Americans, Asians, Hispanics, and Ã¢â¬Å"OthersÃ¢â¬ . She looked at the degree of ethnic minority studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ interest in sport spectating, the frequency in which they attend university sponsored sport events, and the factors that influence their decision to attend campus sport events. Eight factors were tested to see their influence on the studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ attendance. The factors are the price of the tickets, academic commitment, significant others, friends, watching the event on television, the option to spend money on other things, not knowing when tickets are available, the quality of the opponent. The factors identified had no significant influence on studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ attendance. The findings indicate that ethnic minority students generally had a favorable attitude towards sport spectating. However, about 44% of the student stated that they never attend a campus sport event, 41% stated that they seldom attended, and 15% have attended often. The author contended that minority students had a favorable attitude toward sport spectating but they never or seldom attend sport events on campus because they view these events as directed to a specific group (i.e. , dominant ethnic group). For minority students to be motivated to attend, the sport event has to be socially and culturally relevant to the studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ ethnic background. In professional sport, Zhang, Pease, Hui, Michaud (1995) and Zhang, Pease, Smith, Lee, Lam, Jambor (1997) indicated that factors such as game promotions, amenities, and schedule convenience influenced ethnic minoritiesÃ¢â¬â¢ attendance differently and more significantly than they did WhitesÃ¢â¬â¢. Therefore, sport marketers should emphasize the sociocultural factors (i. e., offering different ethnic foods at the concession stands, playing different ethnic music, making announcement in different languages) in promoting sport consumption of ethnic minority consumers (Armstrong, 2001; Hofacre Burman, 1992; McCarthy Stillman, 1998). 13 In a direct connection to the current investigation, previous studies have found differences on the motivations of sport fans based on ethnicity. Wann, Bilyeu, Brennan, Osborn, Gambouras (1999) investigated the relationship between sport fansÃ¢â¬â¢ motivation and race. A sample of 65 Euro-Americans and 32 African Americans completed the Sport Fan Motivation Scale (SFMS). The SFMS, developed by Wann (1995), includes eight motivational factors (eustress, self-esteem benefit, diversion from everyday life, entertainment value, economic value, aesthetic value, need for affiliation, and family needs). The findings indicated that Euro-Americans reported higher motivation than African Americans. The authors argued that certain motives might be applicable to only a subset of races. In a recent study, Bilyeu and Wann (2002) examined the racial differences in sport fan motivation between African Americans and European Americans. First, 50 African American participants completed a demographic questionnaire and an interview with the researcher to discuss their motives for being a sport fan. Second, the motives discovered from the interviews were sent to African American psychologists and sociologists for validation. Third, the new motives were added to the SFMS, then the African American and European American participants were asked to complete the SFMS. The findings suggested that three new factors be added to the SFMS: Ã¢â¬Å"representation (e. g. , people of the same background), similarity (e. g., people they have things in common with), and support/perceived greater equality (e. g. , people they want to succeed)Ã¢â¬ (Bilyeu Wann, 2002, p. 93). Armstrong (2002) indicated that previous investigations of motivation for sport consumption were not applicable to Black consumers because the samples used in these investigations were predominantly White. Therefore, she added a cultural affiliation motive to the SFMS, developed by Wann (1995), and administered it to a sample of only Black consumers of sport. The findings supported the hypotheses that cultural affiliation is a viable motive for BlackÃ¢â¬â¢s sport consumption. In addition, the factor structure of the SFMS with the inclusion of the cultural affiliation motive differed from previous studies (Wann, 1995; Wann, Schrader, Wilson, 1999). Therefore, the Black ConsumerÃ¢â¬â¢ Sport Motivation Scale (BCSMS) was introduced including the following factors: eustress, group recreation, aesthetics, cultural affiliation, group entertainment, escape, and 14 personal (economic/psychological) investment. At the conclusion of the study, the author stated, Ã¢â¬Å"behaviors and motives related to sport consumption may also be influenced by the social and psychological manifestations of cultureÃ¢â¬ (Armstrong, 2002, p.329). In summary, although research on ethnic identity for sport fans is very limited, a strong relationship was found between sport consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ ethnic identity and sport consumption and orientation. Also, the differences found on the motivations for sport fans based on ethnicity, should indicate a strong relationship between sport fansÃ¢â¬â¢ motivation and ethnic identity. However, it is the goal of this investigation to examine this relationship.
Thursday, January 23, 2020
WWF: A Review of Professional WrestlingÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Bang! Fireworks as if it were the fourth of July. Thousands of people in an arena and billions watching around the world anxiously awaiting the arrival of their favorite superstar. Suddenly the crowd erupts as a man comes strutting down to the squared circle. Accompanied by a beautiful busty young woman, the wrestler is cheered by his loyal fans and booed by his enemies. Soon , another man enters the stadium the same way as the first man. The two men stip into the ring with a certain sense of cockiness about themselves. Before the referee can even tell everyone that the match has started, the two men are already battling in the “squared circle';. During the fight there are many suspenseful moments. Brutally beating each other for five minutes the match is finally over with some bloodshed. Today people are taking wwf professional wrestling to the extreme. WWF wrestling is one of the most watched shows on television today. WWF stands for the World Wrestling Federation. Wrestling starte d sometime it the mid to late sixties and has changed dramatically over the years. When wrestling first came to be the wrestlers weren’t like they were today. Back in the olden days of WWF wrestling, the storyline of wrestling wasn’t as vulgar, and the industry was not as wide spread throughout the world. Today the whole industry of the WWF is benefitting from merchandise being sold all over the globe. Even though many people may consider wrestling to be fake, know that some aspects are very real. There have been some instances where people have gotten hurt and even died from a stunt gone bad. There was an instance about half a year ago when a professional wrestler named Owen Hart was repelling from the rafters on a cable and the piece that was attached to his harness snapped and he plummeted 40 feet broke his neck and died. This was a tragic loss to every wrestler and to the whole WWF world. If this isn’t real you wouldn’t know what was. Another example of r eality is when Stone Cold Steve Austin was being suplexed (a professional wrestling move when your opponent lifts you in the air and slams you into the mat), his opponent landed Austin wrong on the mat. This resulted in a career ending surgery for Steve Austin. One thing that wrestling has done over the past couple of years is raised media uproar pertaining to violence at home between children.
Wednesday, January 15, 2020
The study of the relationship among politics and geography, demography, and economics especially with respect to the foreign policy of a nation. The study of geographic influences on power relationships in international politics. Geopolitical theorists have sought to demonstrate the importance in the determination of foreign policies of considerations such as the acquisition of natural boundaries, access to important sea routes, and the control of strategically important land areas. The term was first employed in the early 20th century by the Swedish political scientist Rudolph Kjellen (1864 Ã¢â¬â 1922). Geopolitical factors have become less significant in the foreign policies of states because of improvements in communications and transportation. Geopolitics in Asia: Russia, India and Pakistan-China Cooperation With Russian President Vladimir Putin planning to visit Pakistan, some of my Indian friendsjournalists believe that the proposed trip is a kind of punishment for India because of DelhiÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËproAmericanÃ¢â¬â¢ foreign policy. I think that such a simplistic explanation underestimates the complexity of the situation in the southern part of central Eurasia, which will experience new changes after foreign troops withdraw from Afghanistan. And then a new geopolitical equation will emerge, where Pakistan and its geopolitical alliance with China will surely be the central element due to historical reasons and geographical circumstances. In 1950, Pakistan was one of the first countries to recognize the PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s Republic of China, while in the 1960s to early 1970s it remained BeijingÃ¢â¬â¢s most steadfast ally during a period of a relative international isolation of the latter. China appreciates this support by providing Pakistan with both military, and technical and economic assistance, including the transfer of nuclear technology. Some experts believe that strengthening multilateral connections between India and the U. S. will make strategic alliance relations between Islamabad and Beijing even closer, even more so, because the Pakistani elite considers the partnership with China to be a security guarantee. Military-technical cooperation (MTC) of Islamabad and Beijing is carried out in three main areas: Rockets: Pakistani armed forces have short range and medium range missiles that experts regard as a Ã¢â¬Ëmodification of Chinese allistic missilesÃ¢â¬â¢; Combat aircraft: the Pakistani Air Force has aircraft of Chinese design Ã¢â¬â JF-17 Thunder and K-8 Karakorum, as well as the co-produced interceptor aircraft. In addition, the Pakistani Air Force uses the early warning radar system made in China (U. S. experts believe that the delay in the transfer of the remains of the stealth helicopter that took part in the elimination of Osama bin Laden on May 2, 2011, was associated with its preliminary study by t he Chinese military); Nuclear program: it is believed that China could have transferred to Pakistan the technologies that are critical to the production of nuclear weapons. In addition to MTC, Pakistan and China are actively developing economic relations; their development acceleration was caused by a Comprehensive Free Trade Agreement of 2008. By some estimates, the bilateral trade is approaching $15 billion. With ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s help, long-term infrastructure projects are being implemented in Pakistan, covering road construction, minerals development (including copper and gold), the classical energy manufacturing as well as several projects in the nuclear / non-classical energy field. An important object of the joint activity was the construction of the deepwater port of Gwadar in Baluchistan Province (the port complex operation was started in December 2008. ). This port, located at 180 nautical miles from the entrance to the Strait of Hormuz, through which about 40% of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s supply of oil by water is accomplished, is of strategic importance to Beijing as well. First, it provides diversification and hydrocarbons-supply protection and, secondly, it is possible to access the Arabian Sea through Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (XUAR), which is important for the overall economic security of China. Formally, Pakistan has two main strategic allies Ã¢â¬â China and the United States. However, in the light of the events in 2011 the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s ruling circles have lost confidence in America and increasingly rely on China, referred to, at an informal level, as the Ã¢â¬Ëall-weather allyÃ¢â¬â¢. (An important factor in the growth of IslamabadÃ¢â¬â¢s distrust to Washington was the US-Indian Ã¢â¬Ënuclear dealÃ¢â¬â¢ that has in fact excluded India, according to Pakistani officials, from the nuclear non-proliferation regime. ) The decision by China to build two nuclear reactors in Pakistan, in addition to the existing ones, was a vivid demonstration of mutual trust. However, there are still some problems in the Ã¢â¬Ëall-weather alliesÃ¢â¬â¢ relationship. ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s elite is concerned with the high level of political extremism in Pakistan. Beijing is worried about the growing militancy of the Uighurs operating from the tribal area of Pakistan. According to experts, a significant number of Uighurs who attended madrassas in Pakistan in the 1980s have been subsequently mobilized to units operating on the territory of Afghanistan Ã¢â¬â first against the Soviet troops and later against the combined forces of the U. S. and its allies in their fight against the Taliban. A certain faction of the Uighurs Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬ËMujahideenÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬â apparently returned to China. Another cause of concern in Beijing is the frequent attacks of political radicals against Chinese nationals working in Pakistan on contract (more than 10,000 people). The situation is particularly difficult in the province of Baluchistan, in the western part of the country. Therefore, Beijing, preoccupied as it is with the safety of its citizens as well as the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s prestige in the Muslim world, does not put a special emphasis on combating terrorism in Pakistan, in fact, entrusting a major role in this campaign to the United States. In its turn, Washington takes into account ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s growing concern over proactive forces of political Islam in Pakistan, seeing the coincidence of the United StatesÃ¢â¬â¢ and ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s long-term strategic interests in combating radicalism. China seeks to maintain a strategic policy toward Pakistan that blends the two contradictory principles: 1) restriction of the geopolitical influence of the U. S. and India in South Asia, and 2) protection of the Celestial Empire against political extremism emanating from the Pakistani territory. This task is solved both by the balanced development of relations with Islamabad and Delhi, and through the promotion of good neighbourly relations between the two Ã¢â¬Ëhistoric rivalsÃ¢â¬â¢. This, among other things, is due to the relatively Ã¢â¬ËimpartialÃ¢â¬â¢ policy of the Middle Kingdom, in particular regarding the Ã¢â¬ËKashmir problemÃ¢â¬â¢. Such a compromise position of Beijing is apparently connected with the fears of a possible impact of the Ã¢â¬Ëdemonstration effectÃ¢â¬â¢ of fermentation in the Ã¢â¬ËbigÃ¢â¬â¢, i. e. historical, Kashmir on tentative ethnic and religious turmoil in Xinjiang and Tibet. PT-2 A point of view has long been firmly established among Indian political analysts that the only function of relations between China and Pakistan is that of Ã¢â¬ËcontainmentÃ¢â¬â¢ of India in South Asia. It is difficult to deny the logic of such geopolitical constructions, but this position underestimates the importance of trends that cause a significant external impact on the internal political situation in China during the last decade. The permanent destabilising impact of events in the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region (XUAR) on the overall development of China is a recognized fact. Moreover, political circles in Beijing do not rule out the possibility that supporters of the Ã¢â¬Ëindependent Uighur stateÃ¢â¬â¢ operating from the KhyberPakhtunkhwa or North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) territory of Pakistan are supported by the USA and some Muslim states. Therefore, Beijing endeavours to use various options to neutralise the forces of political Islam in Xinjiang, including those at the state level (Xinjiang is a home to over eight million Uighurs, the most radical of them are seeking to establish an independent state Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬ËEast TurkistanÃ¢â¬â¢). In this direction the ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s policy towards Pakistan has adopted new important points. On the one hand, Beijing was satisfied with a full support of action to eliminate disturbances in Urumqi in July 2009 by the President of Pakistan Asif Ali Zardari, the leader of a Ã¢â¬ËcoreÃ¢â¬â¢ Muslim state that has formally dissociated itself from the Ã¢â¬ËInternational Islamic Resistance MovementÃ¢â¬â¢ in Xinjiang. On the other hand, China has doubts about the Pakistan authoritiesÃ¢â¬â¢ ability to exercise effective control over all its territory. Beijing is not fully convinced in the effectiveness of such controls and some of IslamabadÃ¢â¬â¢s steps taken against extremists, in particular the stringent restrictive measures against the Uighur settlements and their religious schools in Pakistan that have become Ã¢â¬ËnurseriesÃ¢â¬â¢ for the future separatists. The doubts took the form of a direct agreement on multilateral cooperation between the PRC Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region and the North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan. The goal of the agreement is establishing direct contacts with the NWFP leaders in order to suppress the activities of Islamists carried out from the territory of the province. The agreement, however, has a significant socio-economic content. Its Ã¢â¬Ësupporting structureÃ¢â¬â¢ seems to be the broadening (with ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s help) of the Karakorum Highway, which is strategic for both countries and (through the Khunjerab pass located at an altitude of 4,693 metres above the sea level) connects Xinjiang and NWFP. The Pakistani authorities seek to persuade China about the appropriateness of using the Karakorum Highway as a main international communication link for the delivery of imports to China from PakistanÃ¢â¬â¢s ports, particularly from Gwadar in the Arabian Sea that has been modernised with the BeijingÃ¢â¬â¢s help. The agreement also provides for cooperation in the field of interregional trade, science and technology, culture, education, health, agriculture, sports and tourism. It can be noted: filling the NWFP agreement with specific content, China will seek to engage as much of economically active population as possible in the bilateral interregional ties cycle, and thus bind their potentially destructive to China activities in Xinjiang. Interregional relations are only a part of the BeijingÃ¢â¬â¢s general course for stabilising the situation in Pakistan. The PRC leadership is aware that PakistanÃ¢â¬â¢s problems are of structural and systemic origin, and that they are generated by the stateÃ¢â¬â¢s government course that is constantly and on an extended basis reproducing the contradictions that threaten the unity and territorial integrity of the country. Beijing wants to diversify its geopolitical strategy towards Pakistan and the South Asia as a whole. First, Beijing seems to be confident that because of its involvement in military activities in Afghanistan, the U. S. positions in Pakistan have been subtly but irreversibly weakening. The new Ã¢â¬ËequationÃ¢â¬â¢ of geopolitical power in Central Asia is indicative of China emerging as a dominant economic Ã¢â¬Å"actorÃ¢â¬ in the area. Beijing carries out the tactics of gently pushing the U. S. out of Pakistan through the time tested and proven practice of foreign economic relations expansion. In addition, Pakistan is counting on ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s substantial financial assistance, as well as cooperation in the Ã¢â¬ËclassicalÃ¢â¬â¢ energy field, primarily the construction of hydropower stations along the lines of tested Chinese projects (based on the experience of the Ã¢â¬ËThree GorgesÃ¢â¬â¢ project on Yangtze River) in the mountains. Second, true to its strategic principle of Ã¢â¬Ëeconomy defines geopolitics,Ã¢â¬â¢ China actively participates in the modernisation of transport infrastructure in Pakistan. In fact, the implementation of projects in this area is subject to reaching a two-in one objective: to ensure safe transportation of energy carriers on the Persian Gulf Ã¢â¬â South China Sea route and limit the U. S. influence in the regions of the Middle East, South and Central Asia that are a Ã¢â¬ËsensitiveÃ¢â¬â¢ spot for China. The above-mentioned project Ã¢â¬â the Gwadar port in the north-western part of the Arabian Sea Ã¢â¬â is an ideal place for observing the movement of vehicles and naval vessels coming from the Persian Gulf towards the East, and Ã¢â¬â if necessary Ã¢â¬â can be used to protect the vehicles delivering energy resources to the Far East. In particular, the active participation of experts from China in modernising bases and stations of Pakistan Navy submarines, which can also be used by Chinese submarines, speaks in favour of this assumption. Third, according to media reports, China intends to seek permission to open a military base in Pakistan. Military experts believe that there are at least three strategic objectives pursued: providing a Ã¢â¬ËsoftÃ¢â¬â¢ military-political pressure on India; limiting U. S. influence in Pakistan and Afghanistan; direct supervising over the activities of the Ã¢â¬ËUighur separatistsÃ¢â¬â¢ in the NWFP of Pakistan. Fourth, according to Indian press, China has become a major supplier of military equipment to Pakistan. Currently, the Pakistani army is allegedly armed with Chinese military equipment to the tune of 70 percent. Moreover, citing some military sources in Delhi, the Indian press says: If the prospect of receiving the Russian fifth generation fighter by the Indian Air Force is materialised, Pakistan will turn for help to China also carrying research in this area of military construction. And finally, for Pakistan, China remains an indispensable ally and partner in the improvement of nuclear weapons and their delivery systems since 1976. And there is no evidence of terminating that assistance in the foreseeable future.
Tuesday, January 7, 2020
Sample details Pages: 3 Words: 855 Downloads: 1 Date added: 2019/05/13 Category History Essay Level High school Tags: Great Depression Essay Did you like this example? The year 1929 brought about many highs and lows for the American people. Recently elected president Herbert Hoover was about to be inaugurated and had high hopes that the nation was on its way to eliminate poverty. His ironic statement to banish poverty had turned all too real in the fall of that year. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "About The Great Depression" essay for you Create order The crash of the stock market, as well as international and national turmoil brought about a new scope for America and not in the way Hoover had hoped. It pointed fingers at what and who was to blame for the crash and cause of the depression. There was also a shift in the governments involvement with people in desperate times of need. Hoovers presidential address projected an anticipation to end poverty. The Great Crash, shook the nation and provided a great deal of uncertainty. Outraged, hungry, and jobless were all common characteristics that flooded the households of Americans. Banks were closing and citizens were impoverished. Fueled with a desire to work, but with few jobs available, especially to men in the automotive and steel industries, the depression was a time of struggle for all. Rural areas were hit the hardest by the depression. Agricultural goods were on surplus, but yet many were starving. The depression was a contradicting time for Americans. Many believe the stock market was the direct cause for the Great Depression, but that is not true. In the years leading up to the crash, the stock market saw increases as high as 400 percent in the value of stocks. The market seemed to be thriving. People were able to purchase stocks on margin, only having to front part of the cash; it was a huge hit and popular. When the market faltered in the fall of 1929, fingers were pointed at who or what was to blame. The crash was only a building block in the rise and cause of the depression. Problems within the national and international economies shook the world and the New Era vision for America. As the leading economy, the United States did little to help itself or Europe after World War I. The U.S. had a source of power at the time and acted poorly in its reign. High tariffs and power hungry corporations proved disastrous for national and international economies. Hoover wanted anation built of home owners and farm owners (Roark 610). He was a man for the people and the logical decision, at the time, to lead the growing business nation. Hoover wanted a secure nation that included jobs and monetary savings. After the Great Crash, Hoover created the Agricultural Marketing Act, which later led to the Farm Board in the hopes that if they could purchase a good chunk of the surplus of agriculture goods, then prices could raise and strengthen the economy. This had little success and prices fell, as did the economy. Another failed attempt at the shift in government help was the Reconstruction Finance Corporation. This gave funds to banks who were on the brink of foreclosure in the hopes that the money would trickle down from the top of the economy to the bottom. The idea and money was there, but the plan was poorly executed. Hoover believed that people could rely on each other rather than the federal government to help end their suffering. During Ho overs reign, government had slight direct involvement in aiding its people during desperate times of the depression. There was no federal assistance and the only help came from charities and state or local programs. Humans were suffering and the government stood back and watched the economy unravel. The election of Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1932 brought about a new sense of hope for the American people that differed greatly from Hoover. In his inaugural address, FDR mentions that the nation will revive and prosper bringing about a new, positive outlook on how to overcome the depression. In the same speech, he is most famously quoted for saying The only thing we have to fear, is fear itself., in regards to overcoming and bringing the nation out the depression. FDRs positivity continued in his Fireside Chat. Here is discusses the banking crisis and his plan and approach to reopen the federal banks. He challenged the American people to come together in confidence and courage. FDR also increased federal government involvement in helping the people. He supported privates programs, like the Red Cross to provide relief to citizens as well. This tactic differed greatly for his predecessor. In conclusion, the depression was a time of suffering for all. Coming off an economic growth of many years, Americans were blindsided by the troubles and poverty between the years of 1929 and 1939. The crash of the market along with international trade catastrophes caused everyone, mainly the poor, to wonder where their next meal was going to come from or when a steady and reliable job would come their way. The two presidents during the duration of The Great Depression brought about conflicting views on how to help a broken nation. The scope of America had changed and government involvement degraded at a time when Americans needed it the most.
Monday, December 30, 2019
IMPACT OF MOBILE PHONEÃ¢â¬â¢S USAGE ON STUDENTÃ¢â¬â¢S ACADEMIC PERFORMACE, SOCIAL RELATIONSHIP AND SAFETY. INTRODUCTION:- Since the commercialization of cellular phones technology, the use of this communication device has rapidly increased. This technology was first introduced by Motorola in the early 1980Ã¢â¬â¢s (Harman, Brittney A., 2011). Today, the global cellular phone market now stands at approximately 1.8 billion subscribers, and is forecasted to reach 3 billion by the end of 2010 (Reid and Reid, 2007). The adoption of mobile phones by young generation has been a global phenomenon in recent years. This cell phone was originally created for adults for business use (Aoki Downes, 2003). It has become an integral part of adolescentÃ¢â¬â¢s dailyÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦In 2005, the number of mobile phone subscribers worldwide will reach 2 billion (Deloitte Research, 2005) and in Australia will reach 19.2 million (Fisher, 2005). Various surveys worldwide have found high rates of mobile phone use amongst young people. In Norway in 1999, 80% of 13 to 20-year-olds owned a mobile phone, while i n the United Kingdom in 2001, 90% of young people under the age of 16 did so (www.capacitybuilder.co.uk). In 2003, in Italy, 56% of children aged 9 and 10-years-old owned mobile phones and of the 44% who didnÃ¢â¬â¢t, all expressed a desire to own one (Guardian Unlimited, 2003), and amongst teenage girls in Tokyo, the adoption rate is almost 100% (Srivastava, 2005). In Australia in 2004, a survey by iTouch found that 50,000 children aged between 5 and 9 years of age owned a mobile phone, one third of children aged 10 to 13-years old and 45% of 13 to 15-year-olds also owned the device (Allison, 2004). Surveys have consistently shown that young people even prefer their mobile phone to television or the Internet (Enpocket, 2005; Hession, 2001). It is childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s favourite method of communication (Livingstone Bober, 2005) with younger adolescents (school years 7 to 9) more attached to their mobile phones than older adolescents (school years 10 to 12) as they reported needing to return home to collect their phone if they forget it (Matthews, 2004). Young
Saturday, December 21, 2019
The War of 1812 is the second war between the United States of America and Great Britain that ends in a draw. Also referred to as the Ã¢â¬Å"Second War of Independence,Ã¢â¬ the cause of this military conflict is often believed to be a direct result of EnglandÃ¢â¬â¢s attempt to humiliate the United States, limit the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s growth and impact (acts of interference towards American trade, which is a sign of disrespect towards American independence), and acts of impressment (taking sailors off American vessels and forcing them into providing services for the British Royal Navy). Although the ultimate outcome of the War of 1812 results in a tie, the Americans have faced several challenges during the presence of their second dispute with Britain. Arguably, the main reason that caused the United States to struggle during this Ã¢â¬Å"Second War of Independence,Ã¢â¬ is how unprepared the nation is when it comes to fighting another series of battles. During the War of 1812, the power of the army and navy forces in the United States of America seems to be lacking in both its quantity and quality value of soldiers, weapons, and supplies. In comparison to Great Britain, who, at the time, has the leading military in the world, boasting both a powerful army and navy, the Americans appears to be at a clear disadvantage. According to primary and secondary sources on www.napoleanseries.org, during the War of 1812, there were approximately 250,000 soldiers in the British Army and approximately 500Show MoreRelatedThe United States And The War Of 18121144 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages The United States of America triumphed in the Revolutionary War, emerging as an independent nation. Thereafter, they had an arduous task of building their economy and earning recognition amongst other nations. George Washington, the presiding president, promoted Alexander Hamilton, a thirty-four year old former officer of the Continental Army, as the Secretary of Treasury. He devised plans on how to simultaneously generate revenue and deal with war debts. Inevitably, the United States encounteredRead MoreThe War Of 1812 And The United States1716 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesformed United States. The war of 1812 is often referred to as the United States second war for independence because, like the Revolutionary War, it was fought against England. This war was the result of many years of a tension among both countries. It both surprised the British and concerned many Americans who believed that this war was an unwise effort. This was not because there was not reasons to go to war with Englan d. But rather because United States had avoided war for so long that when war wasRead MoreThe War Of 1812 And The United States1699 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe War of 1812 is often referred to as Ã¢â¬Å" Mr. Madison s War,Ã¢â¬ because at the time, federalists believed that their current president, James Madison declared war, without the approval of congress. At the time, the new united nation but somewhat divided was being controlled under the rule of the great power of Great Britain. Great Britain had a strong connection with the northern states of the United States, because of the constant trade going on between them. As the, Federalists got richer, the BritishRead MoreThe War Of 1812 And The United States Essay1328 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe War of 1812 was the result of an ongoing feud between France, Great Britain, and the United States. The causes of the war included Britain attempt to restrict trade between France and the United States, BritainÃ¢â¬â¢s navy intimidating Amer ican seamen and the U.S. attempt to expand their territory. Before going into the war, the United States was fully aware that Britain had the greatest naval power in the world so this would be the costliest war financially and physically. The United States knewRead MoreThe War Of 1812 And The United States1633 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe War of 1812 took place between the Americans and Great Britain because of the impressment of Americans sailors by the British and the passing of the Embargo Act by Congress and President Thomas Jefferson. The British navy would impress sailors from American ships and force the American sailors to board the British ships and to join the British navy. The second reason that the War of 1812 occurred was because of the Embargo Act of 1807. This act was passed by Congress and Jefferson and it stoppedRead MoreThe War Of 1812 And The United States1422 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIn the year 1812, just 29 years after the American Revolution, the United States was a lready confronted with another War against their mother country. Ever since their last war, conflict has been brewing up between the two countries. Since the 1790s, American leaders like Presidents Washington and John Adams was trying to avoid with France and England. In 1793, the Proclamation of neutrality was passed, under Washington s presidency. In 1800, President Adams agreed to the Convention of 1800, whichRead MoreThe War Of 1812 And The United States820 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages The War of 1812 was brought about by a multitude of factors including international trade restrictions, the capture of American sailors by the British Royal Navy, and the United States attempts at expanding its territory. The various parties involved in this war are the Americans, the British, the Canadians (then a british colony), the Native Americans, and the Africans. While the main conflict of this war was between White America and the British, the Native Americans and African slaves found themselve sRead MoreThe War Of 1812 During The United States1308 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesA war time economy in the United States has proven to be a way to bring the people of America together, boost the economy, and inspire nationalism. The War of 1812 did much to follow this trend. By shutting off trade with Great Britain for a few years, United States manufacturers were able to establish their industries and develop a dependency from the people of America. In these ways, the War of 1812 helped create a scenario that allowed the United States to proliferate following the war. TheRead MoreThe War Of 1812 And The United States Army Essay1309 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesBritish forces (). From then on out the United States Army has seen multiple wars from the War of 1812 to present wars today, and will continue to be one the many forces to protect the USA. Now over the years, the United States Army has had to shift the way it conducts its soldiers to fight in the wars and how to be proficient in battl e; even with the new warfare tactics that our enemies are developing daily. Like any other unified team, how does the United States Army gain leverage against our enemiesRead MoreThe War Of 1812 Was A Conflict Between The United States854 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages The War of 1812 was a conflict between the United States and Britain that began in 1812 and lasted until early 1815. A declaration of war was requested by President James Madison to protect American ships on the high seas and to stop the British from stopping ships and capturing United States by both Great Britain and France. President Madison sought to prevent Britain from creating alliances with Native Americans on the American frontier. Americans in the West and South, who hoped to increase the